Are You Ready for ANSI Z87.1-2003?

The biggest change is two levels of lens performance: Basic Impact and High Impact.

THE next time one of your employees reaches for his safety eyewear, he might need to do a double take in order to ensure he's getting the right level of protection for the job. That's because the American National Standards Institute is all but set to publish a revision to its current standard, ANSI Z87.1-1989, in order to make it easier to select the specific eye protection needed for a given task.

The change means manufacturers will need to retest or develop new protectors; safety professionals will have to reassess job tasks and their employees' needs; and workers will have to pay closer attention to what type of eye protection they are wearing or might need to wear in order to be safe.

The new standard, ANSI Z87.1-2003, is set to go into effect sometime in the middle of this month, if everything goes as scheduled, according to Dan Torgersen, who is vice chair of the standard's ANSI committee and technical director of the Optical Laboratories Association (OLA). While there are several changes and minor alterations to the old standard, which went into effect in 1989 and then was reaffirmed in 1998, the most noticeable difference deals with eye protector impact levels.

"The principal change will be the two classifications for impact," explained Torgersen. "The impact is a principal characteristic of industrial eyewear. In the '89 standard, there is only one classification; in the new standard there are two. In the new high-impact test, the lens cannot dislodge from the frame. If, in the hazardous assessment an employer must conduct, the test indicates a basic need, then the first classification will do. If it's a worker, say (one using) a grinder, then a high-impact eyewear would be needed."

Having two classifications of protectors, he says, will make it easier to select the proper protector for a given task.

A Revised Test Method
The testing method for the basic-impact prescription lenses is unchanged, with the lenses having a minimum thickness of 3.0 mm. Basic-impact lenses will be tested in the non-mounted state, with 100 percent of glass lenses being tested and plastic lenses being statistically sampled.

The testing methods for the high-impact prescription lenses are new, however. To be considered high-impact, lenses must be type-tested in the non-mounted state for high-velocity impact resistance.

It is important to note that basic-impact, non-prescription products will be tested in the non-mounted state, while high-impact, non-prescription products will be tested in the mounted state. All manufacturers of prescription safety frames must test products using 2.0-mm lenses in order to label the product Z87-2.

Additional Changes
As the above changes indicate, the new standard primarily will affect the manufacturing and testing of both safety frames and lenses. In addition to the impact protection alteration, the new standard also focuses on lens retention.

There also are more subtle changes to the standard. The chart included in this article is designed to offer a quick comparison between the original 1989 standard and the new, revised standard. More detailed information concerning the standard can be found at www.ansi.org.

With the original standard's having been finalized in 1989, it may seem as though 14-plus years is a long time to wait for a revision. But as Torgersen explained, it has been known for some time that the standard needed to be updated to allow for such a differentiation, but revising the standard to protect today's workers has not been as easy as some might think.

"ANSI requires a review every five years. You can revise it, reaffirm it, or withdraw it--those are the three options. If you choose to revise it, it must be done within 10 years or ANSI can withdraw the standard. This standard has been challenging to revise because it is so comprehensive. It was reaffirmed in '98 to allow more time for the revision," he said.

New Types of Labeling
The final revision--which, at the time of this article, needed to be approved by ANSI board of directors and properly formatted--is more specific than its predecessor. It clearly includes more detailed instructions for testing of both basic-impact and high-impact lenses, as well as brand-new initiatives designed to minimize confusion.

To that end, the standard now requires a warning label that will be attached to any eyewear not considered high-impact. All protection will continue to be marked or stamped as compliant with the standard. An additional "+" stamp will be included on high-impact protectors to distinguish them from basic-impact models.

While it could be argued that all protectors should bear attached labels, or that only high-impact protectors should have them, Torgersen said that is not the case. "The committee thought that, if everything not marked was considered high-impact, it would cut down on the tags needed," he says. "Most of the eyewear used in industrial settings is high-impact compliant. So it was a question of, 'Do you want to label everything?' "

Torgersen went on to say that, according to the standard, only an end user is allowed to remove the warning tag, so confusion should not be a problem.

Effects on Manufacturers, End Users
At first glance, eye protector manufacturers might seem be be facing significant changes to their products. Fortunately, many are aware of the upcoming alteration, and some have begun retesting their products to make sure they are compliant or to make changes as necessary. For some, the transition will be nothing more than new stamps indicating high- or basic-impact protection. In essence, compliant products could be rolling off the lines the very day the standard goes into effect.

Manufacturers and safety professionals are expected to keep abreast of the latest changes concerning safety products and standards, but for many industry workers, a new standard is something of a surprise. New regulations usually come in the form of instructions from safety managers, company initiatives, or union directives. While Torgersen admitted there are current employees who may not be wearing compliant eye protection, he hopes word of the new standard will be spread through safety professionals to end users in the field. Articles such as this one, he said, will be in the hands of those who can best protect workers: the safety managers themselves.

Whether he knows it or not, the next time your worker reaches for his eye protection, it might be a totally different piece of equipment. Many employees should already be wearing high-impact protection during their normal job duties, according to Torgersen. If not, ANSI Z87.1-2003 should correct that problem.

Lens Requirements

OLD ANSI Z87.1-1989

Minimum Thickness

o Prescription Lenses must be 3.00mm thick, except those lenses having a plus power of 3.00D or greater shall have a minimum thickness of 2.5mm.

o Removable Plano Lenses shall be 3.00mm thick, except those lenses that withstand 45.7mps impact of 1/4-in. steel ball. Such lenses shall not be less than 2.00mm thick.

o Non-Removable Plano Lenses shall be 3.00mm thick, except plastic, which can be 2.00mm thick.

Lens Marking

o Manufacturer's logo

o Applicable shade designation

o Photochromic lenses - mark V after the manufacturer's logo

o Special purpose lenses mark S

o All marking is permanent

Impact

Prescription Lenses

o Lenses shall be capable of resisting impact of a 25.4mm (1 in.) steel ball dropped from a height of 127cm (50 in.). The lens shall not fracture.

Non-Removable Plano Lenses

o Tested as complete devices with High Mass Impact and High Velocity Impact Tests & using an Alderson 50th percentile male head form.

Warning Label

None required


Lens Requirements

NEW ANSI Z87.1-2003

Minimum Thickness

Prescription Lenses (called non-plano in the standard). There are two categories of lenses in the new standard: Basic Impact and High Impact.

o Basic Impact Non-plano Lenses shall be 3.00mm thick, except those lenses having a plus power of 3.00D or greater shall have a minimum thickness of 2.5mm (no change from the 1989 standard).

o High Impact Non-plano Lenses shall not be less than 2.00mm thick at their thinnest point.

Plano Lenses (also called non-prescription)

o Basic Impact Plano Lenses shall be the same as Basic Impact Non-plano Lenses.

o High Impact Plano Lenses shall not be less than 2.00mm thick when used in a frame marked "Z87-2." No minimum thickness required if mass production plano protector.

Lens Marking

o Manufacturer's logo--complies with Basic Impact test requirements

o + Complies with High Impact test requirements

o Applicable shade designation

o V Photochromic lenses

o S Special purpose lenses

o All marking is permanent

Example: W+2.5

Manufacturer W makes a lens that meets high impact and has shade 2.5 filter.

Impact

Prescription Lenses (called non-plano in the standard)

Basic Impact Non-plano Lenses

o Shall be capable of resisting impact from a 25.4mm (1 in.) steel ball dropped from a height of 127mm (50 in.). The lens shall not fracture.

o Glass lenses shall be tested 100%.

o Plastic lenses shall be statistically sample tested.

High Impact Non-plano Lenses

o Shall be tested to the high velocity impact test. The lenses shall be mounted on a test holder and shall be capable of resisting impact from a 6.35mm (0.25 in.) diameter steel ball traveling at a velocity of 45.7m/s (150ft/s).

o Three lenses shall be tested.

--Failure consists of any posterior displacement of the lens completely through the test holder; any fracture of the lens; any detachment of a portion of the lens from its inner surface; or full thickness penetration of a lens.

--If all test lenses pass, then any non-plano lens of the same or greater thickness at its thinnest point, which is made by the same manufacturer, from the same material with the same coatings, may bear the "+" mark.

Plano Lenses (also called non-prescription)

Basic Impact Plano Lenses

o Drop Ball--Shall be capable of resisting impact from a 25.4mm (1 in.) steel ball dropped from a height of 127mm (50 in.). The lens shall not fracture.

o Penetration--Plastic lenses shall be capable of resisting penetration from a weighted projectile weighing 1.56 oz. dropped from a height of 50 in. The lens shall not fracture or be pierced through.

o Tested in the non-mounted state.

High Impact Plano Lenses

o Tested with High Mass, High Velocity and Penetration tests.

o Tested as a complete device.

Warning Label

If the finished protector only meets the Basic Impact Standard, it is the responsibility of the laboratory to attach a Warning Label.

o This warning is designed to inform the wearer of the impact limitations of the lenses and must state that it is to be removed only by the wearer.

o These labels will be made available by the OLA.


Frame Requirements

OLD ANSI Z87.1-1989

Test Requirements

High Mass Impact Test

17.6 oz. pointed projectile dropped from a height of 51.2 in.

o Should not cause any parts or fragments of the protector to be ejected that could contact the eye of the head form.

High Velocity Impact Test

1/4 in. steel ball traveling at 150 ft/s (102mph)

o No contact with the eye of the head form is allowed as a result of the impact.

o No parts or fragments of the protector may be ejected that could contact the eye of the head form.

Lens Retention

Safety spectacles available with removable and non-removable lenses must meet High Mass Impact and High Velocity Impact tests.

Test Lens Thickness

o Test lenses for frames designed for Non-plano spectacles shall be 3.00mm thick.

o Plano lenses shall be 3.00mm thick, except lenses that can pass the High Velocity Impact Test. These lenses can be 2.00mm thick.

Frame Marking

All major spectacle components shall bear a manufacturer's trademark and shall be marked Z87 to indicate compliance with the standard.

o In addition, fronts shall be marked with the "A" dimension (eye size) and the "DBL" (distance between lenses).

o Temples shall be marked with their overall length.

Sideshields

Lateral coverage is checked with a point of rotation at the corneal vertex.

o The sideshield shall be impacted 10mm above and 10mm below the plane of the eyes of the head form at the 90º rotated angle.

Warning Label

None required

Flammability

Enforced standard to Section 15.3. The spectacles shall not continue to burn after exposure to a 50mm (2 in.) flame from a 10mm (.394 in.) Bunsen burner for one second.

Corrosion

Metal parts are boiled in a 10% aqueous solution of sodium chloride for 15 min. then immersed in the same solution at room temperature, removed, and allowed to dry for 24 hrs. The metal parts are then rinsed in lukewarm water and allowed to dry. The function of the spectacles shall not be impaired by the corrosion.

Cleanability

After cleaning, the function of the spectacles shall not be impaired.


Lens Requirements

NEW ANSI Z87.1-2003

Test Requirements

Spectacle Frame Test

Designed to test the ability of the frame to retain a lens upon impact and to evaluate the strength of the temples and/or sideshields.

o Retained is defined as no more than 25% separation of the lens periphery from the frame.

High Mass Impact Test

500g (17.6 oz.) pointed projectile dropped from a height of 127cm (50 in.)

o No piece shall be detached from the inner surface of any spectacle component.

o The lens shall be retained in the frame.

High Velocity Impact Test

6.35mm (1/4 in.) steel ball traveling at 45.7m/s (150 ft/s)

o No contact with the eye of the head form is allowed.

o No piece shall be detached from the inner surface of any spectacle component.

o The lens shall be retained in the frame.

Lens Retention

Same test requirements.

Test Lens Thickness

o The test lens shall be 2.00mm +0.2mm, -0.0mm thick.

Frame Marking

o Spectacle frames intended for non-plano lenses shall be marked with the manufacturer's mark or symbol and "Z87-2."

In addition, fronts shall be marked with the "A" dimension (eye size) and "DBL" (distance between lenses).

o Temples shall be marked with their overall length.

Sideshields (if sideshields are employed)

Lateral protection shall be assessed using a rotation point 10mm behind the corneal vertex.

o The sideshield shall be impacted 10mm above and 10mm below the plane of the eyes of the head form at the 90º rotated angle.

Warning Label

If the finished protector only meets the Basic Impact Standard, it is the responsibility of the laboratory to attach a Warning Label.

o This warning is designed to inform the wearer of the impact limitations of the lenses and must state that it is to be removed only by the wearer.

o These labels will be made available by the OLA.

Flammability

The apparatus and procedure as specified in ASTM test method D635-98 shall be used to determine the flammability of plastic components. Alternatively, certification of the material used by the source of supply is acceptable. The material shall not burn at a rate greater than 76mm (3 in.) per minute.

Corrosion

No change in the requirements for metal parts.

o Lenses and electrical parts are excluded from these requirements.

Cleanability

All markings shall stay permanently affixed and readable.

SOURCES: Titmus, OLA, Colts Laboratories

This article originally appeared in the July 2003 issue of Occupational Health & Safety.

Download Center

HTML - No Current Item Deck
  • Free Safety Management Software Demo

    IndustrySafe Safety Management Software helps organizations to improve safety by providing a comprehensive toolset of software modules to help businesses identify trouble spots; reduce claims, lost days, OSHA fines; and more.

  • Easy to Use Safety Incident App

    Record incidents on the go with IndustrySafe’s mobile app. Collect data for multiple types of incidents including including near misses, vehicle and environmental incidents, and employee and non-employee injuries; at job sites and remote locations—with or without web access.

  • Complete Online Safety Training Courses

    Deliver state-of-the art, online safety training courses to your organization with IndustrySafe Training Management Software. Generate reports to track training compliance and automatically notify learners of upcoming or overdue classes.

  • Conduct EHS Inspections and Audits

    Record and manage your organization’s inspection data with IndustrySafe’s Inspections module. IndustrySafe’s pre-built forms and checklists may be used as is, or can be customized to better suit the needs of your organization.

  • Track Key Safety Performance Indicators

    IndustrySafe’s Dashboard Module allows organizations to easily track safety KPIs and metrics. Gain increased visibility into your business’ operations and safety data.

  • Industry Safe
comments powered by Disqus