Incenting, Not Incensing Workers
Smart leaders want to know about lower-level problems. For this reason, highest-level cultures often institute no-blame near-miss reporting systems.
- By Robert Pater
- Nov 02, 2009
Ever find that what initially seems like a good thing just
backfires? This is more likely to happen with an intervention
when leaders haven't thoroughly thought
For example, a global manufacturing company
recently requested our guidance in setting up an
incentive system mandated by a senior executive.
Sure, there were many vendors promising effortless
improvements in Safety performance if the company
would buy their products or systems. You've seen the
ads and booths promoting a quick fix for all that ails
you: little effort, relatively low cost (and you may not
even need some other interventions!).
But leaders in this company are astute and already knew that incentives
can be like the proverbial child, "When he's good, he's great,
but when he's bad, he's horrid." Even so, they hadn't realized some
ramifications of their charge, which my colleague Ron Bowles and
I surfaced for consideration. Though a short article can't customize
recommendations to your company culture, here are some key
points to consider in instituting or high-grading an incentive system:
1. Focus on your cultural objectives. Incorporate incentives that
fit your culture and directly move toward your overall system
objectives. Begin by asking, "What am I trying to encourage or
reinforce?" Then, "Am I reinforcing the right thing?" For example, if
you wish to elevate personal responsibility, a bingo-based incentive
(a game of luck, not skill nor individual control) may collide head-on
with your desired direction.
2. Anticipate potential disconnects. Take time to foresee how you
might minimize potential downsides/pitfalls of incentives.
- Pitfall 1: Encouraging non-reporting. Incentives that reward
having fewer incidents make it more likely you won't hear these
reports. And smart leaders do want to know lower-level problems,
because accidents that can otherwise be hidden are actually
early-level opportunities to engineer, P&P, and/or train out these
exposures before they potentially lead to major and un-hideable
injuries. For this reason, highest-level cultures often institute no-blame
near-miss reporting systems.
- Pitfall 2: Stoking individual vs. group tensions. Rewarding only
groups for performance can backfire. (As in, "Why shouldn't I get
my incentive just because someone else in my group got hurt? I
worked safely....") This can lead either to group pressure to not report
incidents or to workers cold-shouldering those who get hurt
(resulting in lessened communications and increased chances for
future problems in engagement, productivity, and safety).
- Pitfall 3: Sidetracking strategies for cultural improvement.
In previous columns (http://ohsonline.com/Articles/
2008/05/Next-Level-Safety-Cultures.aspx), I've outlined
4 Safety Cultures. Tangible incentives are usually a hallmark of
Stage 2 ("For") Cultures. If you are serious about moving up to
next-level culture and performance, it's essential to adopt the
"look and feel" of that higher step. In best-performing cultures,
Safety becomes increasingly internalized by everyone. Workers
and managers think through and act effectively because
they personally value Safety, not because they
are trying to qualify for or win something.
- Pitfall 4: Assuming you can see Safety at work. Autonomous
workers or those who travel out-of-plant
are difficult to monitor or even supervise and may
not fit well with an incentive model.
- Pitfall 5: Setting expectations of ever-higher
rewards. In too many companies, incentives have
triggered the entitlement button.
3. Select best mechanisms. Incent, don't incense. Speak with a
sampling of workers you wish to reach to get their take before
instituting an incentive system. Do proposed incentives seem
fair/unfair? Easy to administer vs. readily "played"? What might
- Target involvement as an indicator of success. We've noted highestlevel
Safety cultures consistently have strongest worker engagement
and most active participation. To that end, we suggest recognizing
and encouraging involvement (participation in committees, making
useful Safety suggestions, becoming a peer trainer, making a
short presentation at a Safety meeting, honest near-miss reporting,
reporting stories of how they applied Safety training in new ways or
to off-work tasks, etc).
- Prefer offering recognition to rewards.
- Select lasting tangibles.
- Involve the home/family.
- Get supervisors involved early—before the rollout.
4. Reinforce the reinforcement. Periodically remind everyone why
you have an incentive system and what you're trying to accomplish.
Set expectations of the shelf life of this particular round of incentives.
Change it up. Because nothing gets everyone's attention forever, switch
incentives to maintain and then regain attention.
Remember that incentives don't have to be big, nor costly, nor
earth-shattering. Recognition often works best. Remove those that
no longer work or are actually sending the wrong signals. Above all,
employ incentives and recognition to help people bring Safety into
their own everyday thinking and actions.
This article originally appeared in the November 2009 issue of Occupational Health & Safety.
Robert Pater is Managing Director and creator of the MoveSMART system for preventing strains/sprains, slips/trips/falls, hand injuries implemented in over 60 countries. Their emphasis is on “Energizing, Engaging Expertise” to simultaneously elevate safety performance, leadership and culture.
Clients include: Amtrak, ArcelorMittal, BHP Billiton, BMW, Borgwarner, BP, Cummins, Domtar, DuPont, Hawaiian Airlines, HD Supply, Honda, Marathon Oil, Michelin, MSC Industrial Supply, Nissan, Northrop Grumman, ONE Gas, Rio Tinto, Textron, United Airlines, U.S. Steel, WestRock, many others.
Robert writes two ongoing columns for Occupational Health & Safety and for Professional Safety.